مال غیر منقول چیست؟

سوال:

مال غیر منقول چیست؟

پاسخ:

مال غیر منقول مالی است که نمی توان آن را از محلی به محل دیگر منتقل کرد مانند زمین، ساختمان و هر چیزی دیگری که به زمین وصل شده است.

این اموال بر خلاف اموال منقول قابلیت جا به جایی از محلی به محل دیگر را ندارند و به طور مستقیم یا غیر مستقیم امکان انتقال آنها وجود ندارد.

برای اینکه مال غیر منقول را به درستی بشناسیم در ادامه انواع مال غیر منقول را بیان می کنیم.

انواع مال غیر منقول

مال غیر منقول را می توان در موارد مختلفی پیدا کرد از جمله:

  • دسته اول اموالی است که طبیعت آنها غیر قابل نقل و انتقال است مانند معدن یا زمین.
  • دسته دوم اموالی است که بواسطه عمل انسان غیر قابل نقل و انتقال هستند و جا به جایی آنها باعث خرابی یا نقص خود مال یا محل آن می شود، مانند:
  1. لوله کشی در ساختمان یا نصب پنجره به دیوار؛ این اموال تا زمانی که به بنا یا زمین متصل نشده اند منقول محسوب می شوند اما زمانی که در بنا یا ساختمان بکار گرفته می شوند و یا به زمین متصل می شوند غیرمنقول هستند.
  2. همینطور آینه و پرده نقاشی یا مجسمه و سایر اموال از این نوع هم در صورتی که در بنا یا زمین بکار رفته باشند، به طوری که جا به جایی آنها موجب نقص یا خرابی بشود مال غیر منقول هستند.
  • دسته سوم میوه و محصولات کشاورزی است؛ این محصولات تا زمانی که چیده و یا درو نشده باشند مال غیر منقول حساب می شوند، در صورتی که مقداری از محصولات درخت چیده یا بخشی از زمین درو شود، همان مقدار محصول چیده یا درو شده منقول و مقداری که درو و چیده نشده همچنان مال غیر منقول است.
  • دسته چهارم اموال غیر منقول ، حیوانات و اشیایی است که مالک آنها را برای زراعت در زمینش اختصاص داده است؛ مانند گاو، گاو میش، ماشین، اسباب و ادوات زراعت و حتی دانه ای که کاشته می شود در دسته اموال غیر منقول قرار دارند.

تلمبه، گاو و یا هر حیوان دیگری که برای آبیاری زمین زراعی یا خانه یا باغ از آن استفاده می شود هم جزء اموال غیر منقول هستند.

  • دسته پنجم حقوق مالی ای هستند که به دلیل اینکه به مال غیر منقول مرتبطند ، غیر منقول محسوب می شوند، مثلا حق سکونت در منزل یا حق عبور از یک ساختمان و مانند اینها که در حقوق به آن حق ارتفاق و حق انتفاع می گویند.

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